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Electric Scooter Life Reasons
Apr 24, 2018

Working principle factors

The charge-discharge process of a lead-acid battery is a process of electrochemical reaction. When charged, lead sulfate forms lead oxide. When discharged, lead oxide is reduced to lead sulfate. Lead sulfate is a substance that is very easy to crystallize. When the lead concentration in the electrolytic solution of the battery is too high or the static lead time is too long, it will “pinch” into small crystals and these small crystals will attract the surroundings. The lead sulphate, like a snowball, forms a large inert crystal. After being charged, the crystallized lead sulphate can not only be reduced to lead oxide, but also deposited on the electrode plate, resulting in a decrease in the working area of the electrode plate. This phenomenon is called Vulcanization, also known as aging. At this time, the battery capacity will gradually decline until it cannot be used.

Working environment factors

As long as it is a lead storage battery, it cures during use, but lead-acid batteries in other fields have a longer life than lead-acid batteries used in electric bicycles. This is because lead-acid batteries for electric bicycles have a tendency to cure more easily. Working environment.

Deep discharge

The lead battery used in the car is only unidirectionally discharged during ignition, and the generator automatically charges the battery after ignition and does not cause deep discharge of the battery. Electric bikes cannot be charged while riding, and often exceed 60% of deep discharge. When deep discharge, the concentration of lead sulfate increases, vulcanization will be quite serious.

2. Large current discharge

The 20-kilometre cruising current of an electric scooter is generally 4A. This value is already higher than the battery operating current in other fields, and the operating current of an over-speed overloaded electric vehicle is even greater. Battery manufacturers have conducted cycle life tests with 1C charging 70% and 2C discharging 60%. After this kind of life test, it can reach a lot of batteries with 350 cycles of charge and discharge cycles, but the effect of actual use is very different. This is because high-current operation increases the depth of discharge by 50% and the battery accelerates vulcanization. Therefore, the battery life of the electric tricycle is shorter because the body of the tricycle is too heavy and the operating current is more than 6A.

3 high frequency of charge and discharge

The battery used in the field of backup power supply will be discharged only when the power supply is interrupted. If the power is stopped 8 times a year, the service life of 10 years will be reached, and only 80 cycles of charging life will be used, while the charging and discharging cycle of the electric vehicle is 300. More often than not, it is common.

4. Short-term charging

Since the electric scooter is a vehicle and the chargeable time is not large, it takes 32 amps or 48 volts for 20 ampere-hours to be charged within 8 hours. This must increase the charging voltage (typically 2.7 to 2.9 volts per unit) when charging. When the voltage exceeds the oxygen evolution voltage (2.35 volts) or hydrogen evolution voltage (2.42 volts) of the single cell, the battery will open the valve exhaust due to excessive oxygen evolution, causing water loss, increasing the concentration of the electrolyte, and accelerating the vulcanization of the battery. .

5. Cannot charge in time after discharge

As a vehicle, the charging and discharging of an electric bicycle is completely separated, and it is difficult to timely charge the battery after discharging. However, if a large amount of lead sulfate formed after discharge is reduced to lead oxide in less than half an hour, it will be vulcanized and crystallized.